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Mammal

The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands, which in females produce milk for the nourishment of young; the presence of hair or fur; and which have endothermic or "warm-blooded" bodies. more...

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ZebraZebra
MythologicalMythological
ReptileReptile


The brain regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart. Mammals encompass some 5500 species, distributed in about 1200 genera, 152 families and up to 46 orders, though this varies depending on the classification scheme adopted.

Phylogenetically, Mammalia is defined as all of the descendants of the last common ancestor of monotremes (e.g., echidnas) and therian mammals (placentals and marsupials).

Characteristics

While most mammals give birth to live young, there are a few mammals (the monotremes) that lay eggs. Live birth also occurs in a variety of non-mammalian species, such as guppies and hammerhead sharks; thus it is not a distinguishing characteristic of mammals. Although all mammals are endothermic, so are birds and so this is also not a main defining feature.

While monotremes do not have nipples, they do have mammary glands, meaning that they meet all conditions for inclusion in the class Mammalia. It should be noted that the current trend in taxonomy is to emphasize common ancestry; the diagnostic characteristics are useful for identifying this ancestry, but if, for example, a cetacean were found that had no hair at all, it would still be classified as a mammal.

Mammals have three bones in each ear and one (the dentary) on each side of the lower jaw; all other vertebrates with ears have one bone (the stapes) in the ear and at least three on each side of the jaw. A group of therapsids called cynodonts had three bones in the jaw, but the main jaw joint was the dentary and the other bones conducted sound. The extra jaw bones of other vertebrates are thought to be homologous with the malleus and incus of the mammal ear.

All mammalian brains possess a neocortex. This brain region is unique to mammals.

Mammals have integumentary systems made up of three layers: the outermost epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis.

The epidermis is typically ten to thirty cells thick, its main function being to provide a waterproof layer. Its outermost cells are constantly lost; its bottommost cells are constantly dividing and pushing upward. The middle layer, the dermis, is fifteen to forty times thicker than the epidermis. The dermis is made up of many components such as bony structures and blood vessels. The hypodermis is made up of adipose tissue. Its job is to store lipids, and to provide cushioning and insulation. The thickness of this layer varies widely from species to species.

Most mammals are terrestrial, but a number are aquatic, including sirenia (manatees and dugongs) and the cetaceans (dolphins and whales). Whales are the largest of all animals. There are semi-aquatic species such as seals which come to land to breed but spend the majority of the time in water.

True flight has evolved only once in mammals, the bats; mammals such as flying squirrels and flying lemurs are actually gliding animals.

No mammals have hair naturally blue or green in colour. Some cetaceans, along with the mandrills appear to have shades of blue skin. Many mammals are indicated as having blue hair or fur, but in all cases, it will be found to be a shade of grey. The two-toed sloth can seem to have green fur, however, this colour is caused by algae growths.

Origins

Mammals belong among the amniotes, and in particular to a group called the synapsids, distinguished by the shape of their skulls, in particular the presence of a single hole where jaw muscles attach, called temporal fenestra. In comparison, dinosaurs, birds, and most reptiles are diapsids, with two temporal fenestrae; and turtles, with no temporal fenestra, are anapsids.

From synapsids came the first mammal precursors, therapsids, and more specifically the eucynodonts, 220 million years ago (mya) during the Triassic period.

Pre-mammalian ears began evolving in the late Permian to early Triassic to their current state, as three tiny bones (incus, malleus, and stapes) inside the skull; accompanied by the transformation of the lower jaw into a single bone. Other animals, including reptiles and pre-mammalian synapsids and therapsids, have several bones in the lower jaw, some of which are used for hearing; and a single ear-bone in the skull, the stapes. This transition is evidence of mammalian evolution from reptilian beginnings: from a single ear bone, and several lower jaw bones (for example the sailback pelycosaur, Dimetrodon) to progressively smaller "hearing jaw bones" (for example the cynodont, Probainognathus), and finally (possibly with Morganucodon, but definitely with Hadrocodium), true mammals with three ear bones in the skull and a single lower jaw bone. Hence pelycosaurs and cynodonts are sometimes called "mammal-like reptiles", though this is strictly incorrect since in modern parlance these two are not reptiles, but rather synapsids.

During the Mesozoic Period mammals diversified into four main groups: multituberculates, monotremes, marsupials, and placentals. Multituberculates went extinct during the Oligocene, about 30 million years ago, but the three other mammal groups are all represented today. Most early mammals remained small and shrew-like throughout the Mesozoic, but rapidly developed into larger more diverse forms following the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event 65 mya.

The names "Prototheria", "Metatheria" and "Eutheria" expressed the theory that Placentalia were descendants of Marsupialia, which were in turn descendants of Monotremata, but this theory has been refuted. However, Eutheria and Metatheria are often used in paleontology, especially with regards to mammals of the Mesozoic.

Mammal evolutionary progression is below:

  • Jawless fish: Cambrian period to mid Ordovician periods
  • Bony fish: mid-Ordovician period to late Devonian period
  • Amphibians: late Devonian period to early Carboniferous period
  • Reptiles: late Carboniferous period
  • Pelycosaurs (synapsids, or "mammal-like reptiles"): late Carboniferous period to very early Triassic period
  • Cynodonts: Permian-Triassic
  • Mammals: mid-Triassic period to today

Read more at Wikipedia.org


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Oreodont Partial Skull With Jaw/TeethOreodont Partial Skull With Jaw/Teeth $31.00 High Quality Large Giant Sloth Tooth Fossil Teeth Jaw Bones ExtinctHigh Quality Large Giant Sloth Tooth Fossil Teeth Jaw Bones Extinct $26.01 Was:  Previous Price $51.00
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Fossil Turtle Nuccal Scute From FloridaFossil Turtle Nuccal Scute From Florida $8.50 11 inch Mammoth bone #311 inch Mammoth bone #3 $27.00 Was:  Previous Price $30.00
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Ice Age Bison Antiquus Jawbone FossilIce Age Bison Antiquus Jawbone Fossil $35.00 Ancient Fossil Mastodon Tooth Washington State Ice AgeAncient Fossil Mastodon Tooth Washington State Ice Age $49.00
Fossil Bison Jaw From KansasFossil Bison Jaw From Kansas $19.95 New National Geographic Skelesaurus Tyrannosaurus RexNew National Geographic Skelesaurus Tyrannosaurus Rex $19.99
Fossil Armadillo metapodial foot toe bone Dasypus bellus Pleistocene FloridaFossil Armadillo metapodial foot toe bone Dasypus bellus Pleistocene Florida $17.00 Equus Complicatus Pleistocene Fossil Horse Tooth ExtinctEquus Complicatus Pleistocene Fossil Horse Tooth Extinct $29.95
Large Mammal Vertebra SpecimenLarge Mammal Vertebra Specimen $12.00 Allosaurus Dinosaur Fossil Specimen 63.9g w/Coa (F22)Allosaurus Dinosaur Fossil Specimen 63.9g w/Coa (F22) $7.50
Ice Age Bison Antiquus Th1 VertebraeIce Age Bison Antiquus Th1 Vertebrae $35.00 Treasures of the Tar pits.Treasures of the Tar pits. $12.50
Fossil Panther Puma concolor proximal phalanx toe Pleistocene Cat FloridaFossil Panther Puma concolor proximal phalanx toe Pleistocene Cat Florida $45.00 Glyptodon Scute Fossil - Extinct ArmadilloGlyptodon Scute Fossil - Extinct Armadillo $12.99
Fossil lot Pleistocene Mammal Reptile pelvis Bison tooth calcaneus FloridaFossil lot Pleistocene Mammal Reptile pelvis Bison tooth calcaneus Florida $12.00 Fossilized Whale Bone 3 pieces (lot 1)Fossilized Whale Bone 3 pieces (lot 1) $15.99
Cave Bear Tooth Fossil Extinct Pleistocene - w/ Display Box Ldb #13708 12oCave Bear Tooth Fossil Extinct Pleistocene - w/ Display Box Ldb #13708 12o $59.99 Rare Fossil Tooth Santa Fe River Florida Miocene Teeth Research SpecimenRare Fossil Tooth Santa Fe River Florida Miocene Teeth Research Specimen $19.85
5 Authentic Prehistoric Bison Teeth. Ice Age Pleistocene River Fossil5 Authentic Prehistoric Bison Teeth. Ice Age Pleistocene River Fossil $30.00 Bison Horn Huge Fossil Pleistocene Bison Buffalo Skull Horns Bin41Bison Horn Huge Fossil Pleistocene Bison Buffalo Skull Horns Bin41 $59.00
Massive Camel Leg Bone *19 in Around*Massive Camel Leg Bone *19 in Around* $49.99 Equus Complicatus Pleistocene Fossil Horse Tooth Exhuberant AmericanEquus Complicatus Pleistocene Fossil Horse Tooth Exhuberant American $29.95
Rare Fossils Whale Inner Ear And Rib BoneRare Fossils Whale Inner Ear And Rib Bone $25.00 Lot of 47 small fossil shark and small fossil mammal teethLot of 47 small fossil shark and small fossil mammal teeth $17.99
New listing
		Rare Allosaurus Dinosaur Bone Fragment 50g w/Coa (F15)New listing Rare Allosaurus Dinosaur Bone Fragment 50g w/Coa (F15) $5.50 Wholesale Lot Mosasaur Teeth Bagged And Tagged (labeled) x10Wholesale Lot Mosasaur Teeth Bagged And Tagged (labeled) x10 $35.00
Rare Allosaurus Fossil Dinosaur Bone Fragment - 90.2g w/Coa (F10)Rare Allosaurus Fossil Dinosaur Bone Fragment - 90.2g w/Coa (F10) $7.50 Oreodont Limb Bone # 1805 • White River Badlands in South DakotaOreodont Limb Bone # 1805 • White River Badlands in South Dakota $7.95
Camel Tooth Fossil Cedar River, Iowa 1.5”Camel Tooth Fossil Cedar River, Iowa 1.5” $11.80 Petrified Horse tooth fossil, 55.92g, 69mmPetrified Horse tooth fossil, 55.92g, 69mm $49.00
Fossil Deer Jaw From FloridaFossil Deer Jaw From Florida $12.00 Rare Fossil Whale VertebraeRare Fossil Whale Vertebrae $25.00
1 " - 1 3/8 " Small Otodus Shark Tooth 10 Pcs Moroccan Fossil Teeth A grade1 " - 1 3/8 " Small Otodus Shark Tooth 10 Pcs Moroccan Fossil Teeth A grade $13.95 Rare Mastodon Toothwooly mammoth.Rare Mastodon Toothwooly mammoth. $20.00
3 Authentic Prehistoric Horse Teeth. Ice Age Pleistocene River Fossil3 Authentic Prehistoric Horse Teeth. Ice Age Pleistocene River Fossil $30.00 Fossilized Large Mammal BoneFossilized Large Mammal Bone $27.00
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Huge Alligator Scute Dermal Scute Osteoderm Florida Fossil Shell Gs2Huge Alligator Scute Dermal Scute Osteoderm Florida Fossil Shell Gs2 $19.95 1 " Black Wire Wrapped Lamna Moroccan Fossil Shark Teeth for Necklaces 10 pcs1 " Black Wire Wrapped Lamna Moroccan Fossil Shark Teeth for Necklaces 10 pcs $16.95
Equus Complicatus Pleistocene Fossil Horse Tooth PrehistoricEquus Complicatus Pleistocene Fossil Horse Tooth Prehistoric $29.95 New listing
		Baby Fossil Mastadon Milk ToothNew listing Baby Fossil Mastadon Milk Tooth $9.00
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		Attractive Allosaurus Dinosaur Bone Fragment 85.5g w/Coa (F21)New listing Attractive Allosaurus Dinosaur Bone Fragment 85.5g w/Coa (F21) $7.50 6 Fossil Horse Teeth, Florida, Display Case, Gift, Specimen, Education6 Fossil Horse Teeth, Florida, Display Case, Gift, Specimen, Education $25.95
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Pliocene porpoise vertebra Yorktown Formation Auror North CarolinaPliocene porpoise vertebra Yorktown Formation Auror North Carolina $7.50 Axis Scientific Femur Bone Model | Left | Cast from a Real Human Femur Bone l |Axis Scientific Femur Bone Model | Left | Cast from a Real Human Femur Bone l | $36.12
Dinosaur Fossil Genuine Wooly Rhinoceros TeethDinosaur Fossil Genuine Wooly Rhinoceros Teeth $69.99 Marine Ocean Coastal Mammal Ear Bone Florida River Fossils Megalodon DinnerMarine Ocean Coastal Mammal Ear Bone Florida River Fossils Megalodon Dinner $8.93
Hemiauchenia macrocephala- Large Headed Llama Tooth- FloridaHemiauchenia macrocephala- Large Headed Llama Tooth- Florida $10.00 Fossil Giant Short Faced Bear phalanx toe Arctodus pristinus Florida RareFossil Giant Short Faced Bear phalanx toe Arctodus pristinus Florida Rare $55.00
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1/4" Small Sea Snake Fossil Vertebra bone Morocco 10 pcs dinosaur prehistoric1/4" Small Sea Snake Fossil Vertebra bone Morocco 10 pcs dinosaur prehistoric $14.95 00004000
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old Titanothere Fossil on Stand under Glass Dome from Montana 1991old Titanothere Fossil on Stand under Glass Dome from Montana 1991 $49.99 Fossil Armadillo Scute From FloridaFossil Armadillo Scute From Florida $4.50
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Large Mammoth Bone /mammalLarge Mammoth Bone /mammal $21.00 Florida Fossil Tapir Teeth LotFlorida Fossil Tapir Teeth Lot $20.00
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