"How Bears and other Beasts may be caught with a Dart" - facsimile of a Miniature in the Manuscript of Phoebus (Fifteenth Century).The saddled "bear of St Corbinian" the emblem of Freising, here incorporated in the arms of Pope Benedict XVI
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Bear

A bear is a large mammal of the order Carnivora, family Ursidae. The adjective, ursine, is used to describe things of bearlike nature. more...

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Physical attributes

Common characteristics of bears include a short tail, excellent senses of smell and hearing, five un-retractable claws, and long, dense, shaggy fur.

Bears have a large body with powerful limbs. They are capable of standing up on their hind legs. They have broad paws, long snouts, and round ears. Their teeth are used for defense and tools and depend on the diet of the bear. Their claws are used for ripping, digging, and catching. Bears eyesight is probably similar in acuity (sharpness) to the human eye. Black bears, and likely other bears, have color vision to help them identify fruits and nuts.

Depending on the species, bears can have 32 to 42 teeth. Bear teeth are not specialized for killing their prey like that of cat. Normal canine teeth in a carnivore are generally large and pointed used for killing prey, while bears canine teeth are relatively small, typically using them to defend or as tools. Bears molar teeth are broad, flat and are used to shred and grind plant food into small, digestable pieces.

Bears have four limbs that end in paws. Each paw has five long, sharp claws that are unretractible, unlike cats. These claws can be used to climb trees, rip open termite nests and beehives, dig up roots, or catch prey, depending of the species. While most carnivores tend to walk on their toes in a way that is adapted for speed, bears have a plantigrade stance. They walk with their weight on the soles of their hindfeet, with the heel touching the ground, while the toes of the forefeet are used more for balance. Although slower than most carnivores, a running bear can reach speeds of up to 50 km/h (30 mph). They are also stronger than most carnivores and their limbs are more flexible and agile.

A bear's fur is long and shaggy. Fur color varies among species, ranging from white, blonde or cream, to black, and white to all black or all brown. Colors of a bear's fur can also vary within species. For example, American black bears may be black, brown, reddish-brown, or bluish-black. Several species, such as the sun bear and spectacled bear have a light-colored chest with facial markings.

In all bear species, males are larger than females, but the difference between sexes varies and is greatest in the largest species. Large male polar bears may weigh twice as much as females, while smaller male and sun bears are much more similar in weight. A bear's life span seems to last about 25 to 40 years. Bears living in the wild tend to die younger than their zoo-counterparts.

Habitats

Bears live in a variety of habitats from the tropics to the Arctic and from forests to snowfields. They are mainly omnivorous, although some have a more specialised diet, such as polar bears. They eat lichens, roots, nuts, and berries. They can also go to a river or other body of water to capture fish. Bears will commonly travel far for food. Hunting times are usually in the dusk or the dawn except when humans are nearby.

Read more at Wikipedia.org


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